Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus. The campaign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. The Thessalians and Greek allies were sent home; henceforward he was waging a purely personal war. This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy. The Phoenician cities Marathus and Aradus came over quietly, and Parmenio was sent ahead to secure Damascus and its rich booty, including Darius’s war chest. At Gordium in Phrygia, tradition records his cutting of the Gordian knot, which could only be loosed by the man who was to rule Asia; but this story may be apocryphal or at least distorted. Alexander now occupied Babylon, city and province; Mazaeus, who surrendered it, was confirmed as satrap in conjunction with a Macedonian troop commander, and quite exceptionally was granted the right to coin. Crossing the Elburz Mountains to the Caspian, he seized Zadracarta in Hyrcania and received the submission of a group of satraps and Persian notables, some of whom he confirmed in their offices; in a diversion westward, perhaps to modern Āmol, he reduced the Mardi, a mountain people who inhabited the Elburz Mountains. [164], While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. [7], Alexander was born in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon,[8] on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is uncertain. [280] In medieval India, Turkic and Afghan sovereigns from the Iranian-cultured region of Central Asia brought positive cultural connotations of Alexander to the Indian subcontinent, resulting in the efflorescence of Sikandernameh (Alexander Romances) written by Indo-Persian poets such as Amir Khusrow and the prominence of Alexander the Great as a popular subject in Mughal-era Persian miniatures. [197] However, his father Philip was Alexander's most immediate and influential role model, as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year, winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds. In the winter of 324 Alexander carried out a savage punitive expedition against the Cossaeans in the hills of Luristan. [59] While the other cities again hesitated, Thebes decided to fight. [142] He developed a fever, which worsened until he was unable to speak. [82] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death. After conquering cities, Alexander the Great would name them after himself. Was it Veratrum album? Alexander the Great was one of the most influential people in history. [261], Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods.[262]. In spring 326, crossing the Indus near Attock, Alexander entered Taxila, whose ruler, Taxiles, furnished elephants and troops in return for aid against his rival Porus, who ruled the lands between the Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and the Acesines (modern Chenāb). [175] However, the power vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history, the Maurya Empire. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day. [277] Later Persian writers associate him with philosophy, portraying him at a symposium with figures such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, in search of immortality. He also accepted the surrender of Darius’s Greek mercenaries. [37] The marriage made Alexander's position as heir less secure, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be a fully Macedonian heir, while Alexander was only half-Macedonian. Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. [81] Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and after his death, currency depicted him adorned with the Horns of Ammon as a symbol of his divinity. Was Alexander The Great the most important man that ever lived in the history of mankind? [213], Alexander married three times: Roxana, daughter of the Sogdian nobleman Oxyartes of Bactria,[214][215][216] out of love;[217] and the Persian princesses Stateira II and Parysatis II, the former a daughter of Darius III and latter a daughter of Artaxerxes III, for political reasons. This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?" Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. By N. G. L. Hammond, F. W. Walbank, p. xl, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Warfare, J, Woronoff & I. Spence, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, ", Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic, Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia, Personal relationships of Alexander the Great, List of cities founded by Alexander the Great, Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great, Chronology of European exploration of Asia, List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources, "Guardian on Time Magazine's 100 personalities of all time", Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, § m6, Advice to Young Men on Greek Literature, Basil of Caesarea, § 8, The Anabasis of Alexander/Book II/Chapter XIV/Darius's Letter, and Alexander's Reply – Arrian, contemporary Babylonian account of the battle of Gaugamela, Philostratus the Elder, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, § 2.12, "NZ scientist's detective work may reveal how Alexander died", "Was the death of Alexander the Great due to poisoning? [158] Other illnesses fit the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus. [60], According to ancient writers Demosthenes called Alexander "Margites" (Greek: Μαργίτης)[61][62][63] and a boy. [171][172][173] In addition, Leosthenes, also, likened the anarchy between the generals, after Alexander's death, to the blinded Cyclops "who after he had lost his eye went feeling and groping about with his hands before him, not knowing where to lay them". Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus,[48] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra's uncle. Empire of Alexander the Great. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander. Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. He also mentions that this was the only unsuccessful project of Alexander. [175][199] His unique abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death—only Alexander had the ability to do so. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought against him from the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. The Itinerarium Alexandri is a 4th-century Latin Itinerarium which describes Alexander the Great's campaigns. There was much speculation about the cause of death, and the most popular theories claim that he either contracted malaria or typhoid fever or that he was poisoned. As a teenager, Alexander became known for his exploits on the battlefield. Suddenly, in Babylon, while busy with plans to improve the irrigation of the Euphrates and to settle the coast of the Persian Gulf, Alexander was taken ill after a prolonged banquet and drinking bout; 10 days later, on June 13, 323, he died in his 33rd year; he had reigned for 12 years and eight months. There was an open mutiny involving all but the royal bodyguard; but when Alexander dismissed his whole army and enrolled Persians instead, the opposition broke down. Quintus Curtius Rufus wrote a "History of Alexander the Great of Macedon", which has been translated by J.C.Rolfe in his Loeb edition, with the Latin text on facing pages. [1][2] He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.[3]. Suspicion has fallen upon Alexander, Olympias and even the newly crowned Persian Emperor, Darius III. His post of chiliarch (grand vizier) was left unfilled. [174], Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. The march was attended with much fighting and heavy, pitiless slaughter; at the storming of one town of the Malli near the Hydraotes (Ravi) River, Alexander received a severe wound which left him weakened. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. [60] The one exception was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in the battle of Megalopolis. [181] Nevertheless, Perdiccas read Alexander's will to his troops.[60]. His eyes (one blue, one brown) revealed a dewy, feminine quality. Conqueror and king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great was born on July 20, 356 B.C., in Pella, in the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia. [259] The emperor Trajan also admired Alexander, as did Nero and Caracalla. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.[165]. [58], While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. [112] Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his empire. [114] Ambhi hastened to relieve Alexander of his apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and all his forces at his disposal. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together. Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India. Many of these students would become his friends and future generals, and are often known as the 'Companions'. 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